(a) General requirements. Students shall be awarded one unit of credit for successful completion of this course.
(1) In World Geography Studies, students examine people, places, and environments at local, regional, national, and international scales from the spatial and ecological perspectives of geography. Students describe the influence of geography on events of the past and present. A significant portion of the course centers around the physical processes that shape patterns in the physical environment; the characteristics of major land forms, climates, and ecosystems and their interrelationships; the political, economic, and social processes that shape cultural patterns of regions; types and patterns of settlement; the distribution and movement of world population; relationships among people, places, and environments; and the concept of region. Students analyze how location affects economic activities in different economic systems throughout the world. Students identify the processes that influence political divisions of the planet and analyze how different points of view affect the development of public policies. Students compare how components of culture shape the characteristics of regions and analyze the impact of technology and human modifications on the physical environment. Students use problem-solving and decision-making skills to ask and answer geographic questions.
(2) To support the teaching of the essential knowledge and skills, the use of a variety of rich primary and secondary source material such as contemporary and historic maps of various types, satellite-produced images, photographs, graphs, sketches, and diagrams is encouraged.
(3) The eight strands of the essential knowledge and skills for social studies are intended to be integrated for instructional purposes. Skills listed in the geography and social studies skills strands in subsection (c) of this section should be incorporated into the teaching of all essential knowledge and skills for social studies. A greater depth of understanding of complex content material can be attained when integrated social studies content from the various disciplines and critical-thinking skills are taught together.
(4) Throughout social studies in Kindergarten-Grade 12, students build a foundation in history; geography; economics; government; citizenship; culture; science, technology, and society; and social studies skills. The content, as appropriate for the grade level or course, enables students to understand the importance of patriotism, function in a free enterprise society, and appreciate the basic democratic values of our state and nation as referenced in the Texas Education Code, §28.002(h).
(c) Knowledge and skills.
(1) History. The student understands how geographic contexts (the geography of places in the past) and processes of spatial exchange (diffusion) influenced events in the past and helped to shape the present. The student is expected to:
(A) analyze the effects of physical and human geographic patterns and processes on events in the past and describe their effects on present conditions, including significant physical features and environmental conditions that influenced migration patterns in the past and shaped the distribution of culture groups today; and
(B) trace the spatial diffusion of a phenomenon and describe its effects on regions of contact such as the spread of bubonic plague, the diffusion and exchange of foods between the New and Old Worlds, or the diffusion of American slang.
(2) History. The student understands how people, places, and environments have changed over time and the effects of these changes on history. The student is expected to:
(A) describe the human and physical characteristics of the same place at different periods of history; and
(B) assess how people's changing perceptions of geographic features have led to changes in human societies.
(3) Geography. Such as student understands how physical processes shape patterns in the physical environment (lithosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere), including how Earth-Sun relationships affect physical processes and patterns on Earth's surface. The student is expected to:
(A) attribute occurrences of weather phenomena and climate to annual changes in Earth-Sun relationships; and
(B) describe physical environment of regions and the physical processes that affect these regions such as weather, tectonic forces, wave action, freezing and thawing, gravity, and soil-building processes.
(4) Geography. The student understands the patterns and characteristics of major landforms, climates, and ecosystems of Earth and the interrelated processes that produce them. The student is expected to:
(A) explain the distribution of different types of climate in terms of patterns of temperature, wind, and precipitation and the factors that influence climate regions such as elevation, latitude, location near warm and cold ocean currents, position on a continent, and mountain barriers;
(B) relate the physical processes to the development of distinctive land forms; and
(C) explain the distribution of plants and animals in different regions of the world using the relationships among climate, vegetation, soil, and geology.
(5) Geography. The student understands how political, economic, and social processes shape cultural patterns and characteristics in various places and regions. The student is expected to:
(A) analyze how the character of a place is related to its political, economic, social, and cultural characteristics; and
(B) analyze political, economic, social, and demographic data to determine the level of development and standard of living in nations.
(6) Geography. The student understands the types and patterns of settlement, the factors that affect where people settle, and processes of settlement development over time. The student is expected to:
(A) locate settlements and observe patterns in the size and distribution of cities using maps, graphics, and other information; and
(B) explain the processes that have caused cities to grow such as location along transportation routes, availability of resources that have attracted settlers and economic activities, and continued access to other cities and resources.
(7) Geography. The student understands the growth, distribution, movement, and characteristics of world population. The student is expected to:
(A) construct and analyze population pyramids and use other data, graphics, and maps to describe the population characteristics of different societies and to predict future growth trends;
(B) explain the political, economic, social, and environmental factors that contribute to human migration such as how national and international migrations are shaped by push-and-pull factors and how physical geography affects the routes, flows, and destinations of migration;
(C) describe trends in past world population growth and distribution; and
(D) develop and defend hypotheses on likely population patterns for the future.
(8) Geography. The student understands how people, places, and environments are connected and interdependent. The student is expected to:
(A) explain the interrelationships among physical and human processes that shape the geographic characteristics of places such as connections among economic development, urbanization, population growth, and environmental change;
(B) compare ways that humans depend on, adapt to, and modify the physical environment using local, state, national, and international human activities in a variety of cultural and technological contexts;
(C) describe the impact of and analyze the reaction of the environment to abnormal and/or hazardous environmental conditions at different scales such as El Niño, floods, droughts, and hurricanes; and
(D) analyze statistical and other data to infer the effects of physical and human processes on patterns of settlement, population distribution, economic and political conditions, and resource distribution.
(9) Geography. The student understands the concept of region as an area of Earth's surface with unifying geographic characteristics. The student is expected to:
(A) identify physical or human factors that constitute a region such as soils, climate, vegetation, language, trade network, river systems, and religion; and
(B) identify the differences among formal, functional, and perceptual regions.
(10) Economics. The student understands the distribution and characteristics of economic systems throughout the world. The student is expected to:
(A) describe the characteristics of traditional, command, and market economies;
(B) explain how traditional, command, and market economies operate in specific countries; and
(C) compare the ways people satisfy their basic needs through the production of goods and services such as subsistence agriculture versus market-oriented agriculture or cottage industries versus commercial industries.
(11) Economics. The student understands the reasons for the location of economic activities (primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary) in different economic systems. The student is expected to:
(A) map the locations of different types of economic activities;
(B) identify factors affecting the location of different types of economic activities; and
(C) describe how changes in technology, transportation, and communication affect the location and patterns of economic activities.
(12) Economics. The student understands the economic importance of, and issues related to, the location and management of key natural resources. The student is expected to:
(A) compare global trade patterns at different periods of time and develop hypotheses to explain changes that have occurred in world trade and the implications of these changes;
(B) analyze how the creation and distribution of resources affect the location and patterns of movement of products, capital, and people; and
(C) evaluate the geographic and economic impact of policies related to the use of resources such as regulations for water use or policies related to the development of scarce natural resources.
(13) Government. The student understands the characteristics of a variety of political units. The student is expected to:
(A) prepare maps that illustrate a variety of political entities such as city maps showing precincts, country maps showing states, or continental maps showing countries; and
(B) compare maps of voting patterns or political boundaries to make inferences about the distribution of political power.
(14) Government. The student understands the geographic processes that influence political divisions, relationships, and policies. The student is expected to:
(A) analyze current events to infer the physical and human processes that lead to the formation of boundaries and other political divisions;
(B) explain how forces of conflict and cooperation influence the allocation of control of Earth's surface such as the formation of congressional voting districts or free trade zones; and
(C) explain the geographic factors that influence a nation's power to control territory and that shape the foreign policies and international political relations of selected nations such as Iraq, Israel, Japan, and the United Kingdom.
(15) Citizenship. The student understands how different points of view influence the development of public policies and decision-making processes on local, state, national, and international levels. The student is expected to:
(A) identify and give examples of different points of view that influence the development of public policies and decision-making processes on local, state, national, and international levels;
(B) explain how citizenship practices, public policies, and decision making may be influenced by cultural beliefs; and
(C) compare different points of view on geographic issues.
(16) Culture. The student understands how the components of culture affect the way people live and shape the characteristics of regions. The student is expected to:
(A) describe distinctive cultural patterns and landscapes associated with different places in Texas, the United States, and other regions of the world, and how these patterns influenced the processes of innovation and diffusion;
(B) give examples of ways various groups of people view cultures, places, and regions differently; and
(C) compare life in a variety of cities and nations in the world to evaluate the relationships involved in political, economic, social, and environmental changes.
(17) Culture. The student understands the distribution, patterns, and characteristics of different cultures. The student is expected to:
(A) describe and compare patterns of culture such as language, religion, land use, systems of education, and customs that make specific regions of the world distinctive; and
(B) compare economic opportunities in different cultures for women and religious minorities in selected regions of the world.
(18) Culture. The student understands the ways in which cultures change and maintain continuity. The student is expected to:
(A) describe the impact of general processes such as migration, war, trade, independent inventions, and diffusion of ideas and motivations on cultural change;
(B) analyze cultural changes in specific regions;
(C) analyze examples of cultures that maintain traditional ways; and
(D) evaluate case studies of the spread of cultural traits to find examples of cultural convergence and divergence such as the spread of democratic ideas, U.S.-based fast-food franchises in Russia and Eastern Europe, or the English language as a major medium of international communication for scientists and business people.
(19) Science, technology, and society. The student understands the impact of technology and human modifications on the physical environment. The student is expected to:
(A) evaluate the significance of major technological innovations, including fire, steam power, diesel machinery, and electricity that have been used to modify the physical environment; and
(B) analyze ways technological innovations have allowed humans to adapt to places shaped by physical processes such as floods, earthquakes, and hurricanes.
(20) Science, technology, and society. The student understands how technology affects definitions of, access to, and use of resources. The student is expected to:
(A) describe the impact of new technologies, new markets, and revised perceptions of resources; and
(B) analyze the role of technology in agriculture and other primary economic activities and identify the environmental consequences of the changes that have taken place.
(21) Social studies skills. The student applies critical-thinking skills to organize and use information acquired from a variety of sources including electronic technology. The student is expected to:
(A) use historical, geographic, and statistical information from a variety of sources such as databases, field interviews, media services, and questionnaires to answer geographic questions and infer geographic relationships;
(B) analyze and evaluate the validity and utility of multiple sources of geographic information such as primary and secondary sources, aerial photographs, and maps;
(C) construct and interpret maps to answer geographic questions, infer geographic relationships, and analyze geographic change;
(D) apply basic statistical concepts and analytical methods such as computer-based spreadsheets and statistical software to analyze geographic data; and
(E) use a series of maps, including a computer-based geographic information system, to obtain and analyze data needed to solve geographic and locational problems.
(22) Social studies skills. The student communicates in written, oral, and visual forms. The student is expected to:
(A) design and draw appropriate maps and other graphics such as sketch maps, diagrams, tables, and graphs to present geographic information including geographic features, geographic distributions, and geographic relationships;
(B) apply appropriate vocabulary, geographic models, generalizations, theories, and skills to present geographic information;
(C) use geographic terminology correctly; and
(D) use standard grammar, spelling, sentence structure, and punctuation.
(23) Social studies skills. The student uses problem-solving and decision-making skills, working independently and with others, in a variety of settings. The student is expected to:
(A) plan, organize, and complete a group research project that involves asking geographic questions; acquiring, organizing, and analyzing geographic information; answering geographic questions; and communicating results;
(B) use case studies and geographic information systems to identify contemporary geographic problems and issues and to apply geographic knowledge and skills to answer real-world questions;
(C) use a problem-solving process to identify a problem, gather information, list and consider options, consider advantages and disadvantages, choose and implement a solution, and evaluate the effectiveness of the solution; and
(D) use a decision-making process to identify a situation that requires a decision, gather information, identify options, predict consequences, and take action to implement a decision.
Source: The provisions of this §113.34 adopted to be effective September 1, 1998, 22 TexReg 7684